French and Indian War
After the French and Indian War, Tallmadge vowed never to kill another person. He would later tell Abraham Woodhull stories of the war.
Nathanial, along with several others, was arrested for conspiracy to incite a rebellion, and specifically charged with the attempted murder of Richard Woodhull. The latter having been shot and nearly killed; the musket ball retrieved from his chest having been wrapped in wadding made from a section of the Book of Judges. It was found that Tallmadge's Bible was missing the corresponding page from Judges Chapter Three. Abraham Woodhall acted as magistrate for the trial in his father's stead, presenting the case against Tallmadge for the murder of his father. However, when Abe and Simcoe attempted to demonstrate how Nathanial would have used his rifle when he tried to murder Richard, it was revealed that the shot did not actually fit. Nathanial chastised his accusers, informing them that his was a Pennsylvania Rifle with a grooved barrel of a smaller bore and that the ball must have come from the Brown Bess that the British soldiers use. In a de facto "final sermon" he exhorted the citizens attending the trial to remember that they have the right to live free.
After the trial, Hewlett was reluctant to sentence him to death by hanging, and so elected to have him imprison on the prison ship HMS Jersey in a show of mercy. Abe suggested such a sentence was just as much of a death sentence and that perhaps Nathanial was, in fact, innocent.
Simcoe, disregarding Hewlett's sentencing, chose to hang the conspirators together as originally planned. The hanging was interrupted by a charge of the Continental Army lead by Benjamin Tallmadge. While two of the conspirators ran off and one left in the noose, Nathanial and the rest was taken by Simcoe in a retreat to the garrison.